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I must confess, my convictions on all matters where the sexes are so widely divided are all on the side of emancipation , and I look forward to the time when ladies may sit in Parliament and have a voice in the direction of affairs, especially those which concern them most.
Association football is played in accordance with a set of rules known as the Laws of the Game. The team that has scored more goals at the end of the game is the winner; if both teams have scored an equal number of goals then the game is a draw.
Each team is led by a captain who has only one official responsibility as mandated by the Laws of the Game: The primary law is that players other than goalkeepers may not deliberately handle the ball with their hands or arms during play, though they must use both their hands during a throw-in restart.
Although players usually use their feet to move the ball around they may use any part of their body notably, "heading" with the forehead  other than their hands or arms.
During gameplay, players attempt to create goal-scoring opportunities through individual control of the ball, such as by dribbling , passing the ball to a teammate, and by taking shots at the goal, which is guarded by the opposing goalkeeper.
Opposing players may try to regain control of the ball by intercepting a pass or through tackling the opponent in possession of the ball; however, physical contact between opponents is restricted.
Football is generally a free-flowing game, with play stopping only when the ball has left the field of play or when play is stopped by the referee for an infringement of the rules.
After a stoppage, play recommences with a specified restart. At a professional level, most matches produce only a few goals.
For example, the —06 season of the English Premier League produced an average of 2. Broadly, these include three main categories: Players in these positions are referred to as outfield players, to distinguish them from the goalkeeper.
These positions are further subdivided according to the area of the field in which the player spends most time.
For example, there are central defenders, and left and right midfielders. The ten outfield players may be arranged in any combination.
While players typically spend most of the game in a specific position, there are few restrictions on player movement, and players can switch positions at any time.
There are 17 laws in the official Laws of the Game, each containing a collection of stipulation and guidelines. The same laws are designed to apply to all levels of football, although certain modifications for groups such as juniors, seniors, women and people with physical disabilities are permitted.
The laws are often framed in broad terms, which allow flexibility in their application depending on the nature of the game.
Each team consists of a maximum of eleven players excluding substitutes , one of whom must be the goalkeeper. Competition rules may state a minimum number of players required to constitute a team, which is usually seven.
Goalkeepers are the only players allowed to play the ball with their hands or arms, provided they do so within the penalty area in front of their own goal.
Though there are a variety of positions in which the outfield non-goalkeeper players are strategically placed by a coach, these positions are not defined or required by the Laws.
The basic equipment or kit players are required to wear includes a shirt, shorts, socks, footwear and adequate shin guards.
An athletic supporter and protective cup is highly recommended for male players by medical experts and professionals. The goalkeeper must wear clothing that is easily distinguishable from that worn by the other players and the match officials.
A number of players may be replaced by substitutes during the course of the game. The maximum number of substitutions permitted in most competitive international and domestic league games is three in ninety minutes with each team being allowed one more if the game should go into extra-time, though the permitted number may vary in other competitions or in friendly matches.
Common reasons for a substitution include injury, tiredness, ineffectiveness, a tactical switch, or timewasting at the end of a finely poised game.
In standard adult matches, a player who has been substituted may not take further part in a match. A game is officiated by a referee , who has "full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed" Law 5 , and whose decisions are final.
The referee is assisted by two assistant referees. In many high-level games there is also a fourth official who assists the referee and may replace another official should the need arise.
Video assistant referee VAR has also been increasingly introduced to assist officials through video replay to correct clear and obvious mistakes.
There are four types of calls that can be reviewed: In the past the ball was made up of leather panels sewn together, with a latex bladder for pressurisation but modern balls at all levels of the game are now synthetic.
As the Laws were formulated in England, and were initially administered solely by the four British football associations within IFAB , the standard dimensions of a football pitch were originally expressed in imperial units.
The Laws now express dimensions with approximate metric equivalents followed by traditional units in brackets , though use of imperial units remains popular in English-speaking countries with a relatively recent history of metrication or only partial metrication , such as Britain.
The longer boundary lines are touchlines , while the shorter boundaries on which the goals are placed are goal lines. A rectangular goal is positioned at the middle of each goal line.
Nets are usually placed behind the goal, but are not required by the Laws. In front of the goal is the penalty area.
This area is marked by the goal line, two lines starting on the goal line This area has a number of functions, the most prominent being to mark where the goalkeeper may handle the ball and where a penalty foul by a member of the defending team becomes punishable by a penalty kick.
Other markings define the position of the ball or players at kick-offs , goal kicks, penalty kicks and corner kicks. A standard adult football match consists of two halves of 45 minutes each.
Each half runs continuously, meaning that the clock is not stopped when the ball is out of play. There is usually a minute half-time break between halves.
The end of the match is known as full-time. This added time is called additional time in FIFA documents,   but is most commonly referred to as stoppage time or injury time , while lost time can also be used as a synonym.
The duration of stoppage time is at the sole discretion of the referee. Stoppage time does not fully compensate for the time in which the ball is out of play , and a minute game typically involves about an hour of "effective playing time".
In matches where a fourth official is appointed, towards the end of the half the referee signals how many minutes of stoppage time they intend to add.
The fourth official then informs the players and spectators by holding up a board showing this number. The signalled stoppage time may be further extended by the referee.
Trailing 1—0 and with just two minutes remaining, Stoke were awarded a penalty. In league competitions, games may end in a draw.
In knockout competitions where a winner is required various methods may be employed to break such a deadlock; some competitions may invoke replays.
If the score is still tied after extra time, some competitions allow the use of penalty shootouts known officially in the Laws of the Game as "kicks from the penalty mark" to determine which team will progress to the next stage of the tournament.
Goals scored during extra time periods count towards the final score of the game, but kicks from the penalty mark are only used to decide the team that progresses to the next part of the tournament with goals scored in a penalty shootout not making up part of the final score.
In competitions using two-legged matches , each team competes at home once, with an aggregate score from the two matches deciding which team progresses.
Where aggregates are equal, the away goals rule may be used to determine the winners, in which case the winner is the team that scored the most goals in the leg they played away from home.
If the result is still equal, extra time and potentially a penalty shootout are required. In the late s and early s, the IFAB experimented with ways of creating a winner without requiring a penalty shootout, which was often seen as an undesirable way to end a match.
These involved rules ending a game in extra time early, either when the first goal in extra time was scored golden goal , or if one team held a lead at the end of the first period of extra time silver goal.
Golden goal was used at the World Cup in and Germany was the first nation to score a golden goal in a major competition, beating Czech Republic in the final of Euro Silver goal was used in Euro Both these experiments have been discontinued by IFAB.
Under the Laws, the two basic states of play during a game are ball in play and ball out of play. From the beginning of each playing period with a kick-off until the end of the playing period, the ball is in play at all times, except when either the ball leaves the field of play, or play is stopped by the referee.
When the ball becomes out of play, play is restarted by one of eight restart methods depending on how it went out of play:. A foul occurs when a player commits an offence listed in the Laws of the Game while the ball is in play.
The offences that constitute a foul are listed in Law Handling the ball deliberately, tripping an opponent, or pushing an opponent, are examples of "penal fouls", punishable by a direct free kick or penalty kick depending on where the offence occurred.
Other fouls are punishable by an indirect free kick. A second yellow card in the same game leads to a red card, which results in a dismissal.
If a player has been dismissed, no substitute can be brought on in their place and the player may not participate in further play. Misconduct may occur at any time, and while the offences that constitute misconduct are listed, the definitions are broad.
In particular, the offence of "unsporting behaviour" may be used to deal with most events that violate the spirit of the game, even if they are not listed as specific offences.
A referee can show a yellow or red card to a player, substitute or substituted player. Non-players such as managers and support staff cannot be shown the yellow or red card, but may be expelled from the technical area if they fail to conduct themselves in a responsible manner.
Rather than stopping play, the referee may allow play to continue if doing so will benefit the team against which an offence has been committed.
This is known as "playing an advantage". Even if an offence is not penalised due to advantage being played, the offender may still be sanctioned for misconduct at the next stoppage of play.
Most competitions enforce mandatory suspensions for players who are sent off in a game. Sanctions for such infractions may be levied on individuals or on to clubs as a whole.
Penalties may include fines, points deductions in league competitions or even expulsion from competitions. For example, the English Football League deduct 12 points from any team that enters financial administration.
Teams that had forfeited a game or had been forfeited against would be awarded a technical loss or win. The recognised international governing body of football and associated games, such as futsal and beach soccer is FIFA.
Six regional confederations are associated with FIFA; these are: National associations oversee football within individual countries. These are generally synonymous with sovereign states, for example: International competitions in association football principally consist of two varieties: International football , without qualification, most often refers to the former.
In the case of international club competition, it is the country of origin of the clubs involved, not the nationalities of their players, that renders the competition international in nature.
This competition takes place every four years since with the exception of and tournaments, which were cancelled due to World War II.
Approximately — national teams compete in qualifying tournaments within the scope of continental confederations for a place in the finals.
The finals tournament, which is held every four years, involves 32 national teams competing over a four-week period.
There has been a football tournament at every Summer Olympic Games since , except at the games in Los Angeles. Originally, the tournament was for amateurs only.
The countries that benefited most were the Soviet Bloc countries of Eastern Europe , where top athletes were state-sponsored while retaining their status as amateurs.
Between and , 23 out of 27 Olympic medals were won by Eastern Europe, with only Sweden gold in and bronze in , Denmark bronze in and silver in and Japan bronze in breaking their dominance.
Since male competitors must be under 23 years old, and since , players under 23 years old, with three over year old players, are allowed per squad.
After the World Cup, the most important international football competitions are the continental championships, which are organised by each continental confederation and contested between national teams.
The most prestigious competitions in club football are the respective continental championships, which are generally contested between national champions, for example the UEFA Champions League in Europe and the Copa Libertadores in South America.
The governing bodies in each country operate league systems in a domestic season , normally comprising several divisions , in which the teams gain points throughout the season depending on results.
Teams are placed into tables , placing them in order according to points accrued. Most commonly, each team plays every other team in its league at home and away in each season, in a round-robin tournament.
At the end of a season, the top team is declared the champion. The top few teams may be promoted to a higher division, and one or more of the teams finishing at the bottom are relegated to a lower division.
The main exceptions to this system occur in some Latin American leagues, which divide football championships into two sections named Apertura and Clausura Spanish for Opening and Closing , awarding a champion for each.
Football hooliganism is the term used to describe disorderly, violent or destructive behaviour perpetrated by spectators at football events.
Variants of football have been codified for reduced-sized teams i. Such games can have team sizes that vary from eleven-a-side, can use a limited or modified subset of the official rules, and can be self-officiated by the players.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Soccer disambiguation. This article is about the sport of association football.
For other codes of football, see Football. The attacking player No. Names for association football. History of association football.
Children playing cuju in Song dynasty China. An episkyros player on an ancient stone carving at the National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
For the rules of other football games, see Football. Laws of the Game association football. Association football positions , Formation association football , and Kit association football.
Ball in and out of play. Players are cautioned with a yellow card, and dismissed from the game with a red card. Association football around the world.
List of association football competitions. Professionalism in association football. Variants of association football and Street football. The most recent changed was in , from 24 to Retrieved 11 July Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original on 12 June Retrieved 4 June A Comparative and Developmental Approach.
Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilisation. It has been estimated that there were 22 million soccer players in the world in the early s, and that number is increasing.
Archived from the original on 14 March Retrieved 6 January Retrieved 29 October The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 20 June Retrieved 17 September Kennell, The Gymnasium of Virtue: Retrieved 19 June